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PRESCRIPTION DRUGS – WHEN DRUG ABUSE IS LEGAL

Prescription Drugs. Drug abuse is no longer limited to illegal drugs or hard drugs like heroine, tik or cocaine. One of the most dangerous and rising forms of drug abuse is legal, over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. From cough syrups and painkillers to sleep medicine and prescription tranquilisers; these socially accepted drugs are cheap, accessible and addictive – making them all the more dangerous.

How are they addictive?

Drug addiction is a complex disorder that is characterised by compulsive drug use. Every drug produces different physical effects, but the common result is that repeated use can alter the way the brain looks and functions.

When it comes to most prescription or OTC medicines, repeated abuse floods the system with dopamine, which gives the user that euphoric rush. Some experts believe the receptor cells in the brain actually change. So when someone with a predisposition to addiction uses these drugs repeatedly it causes the reward system to learn that drugs are essential to their survival and they should get it at any cost.

Dependence versus Addiction

Many people can use recreational or prescription drugs without ever experiencing negative consequences or addiction. For many others, continuous use of these substances quickly leads to abuse and then addiction. It’s not always easy to tell when the line has been crossed, but some common behaviours indicating drug addiction include:

• neglecting responsibilities to family and friends

• performing poorly at work

• losing interest in sex.

Dependency is much more commonplace. Anyone who takes prescription medicine for more than a few weeks will develop some physical dependence on the drug for the relief it brings, be it to pain or insomnia. Usually, people are on stable, generally lower doses of the medicine. If they do stop suddenly, they will probably have some mild withdrawal symptoms, which will go away once they have ‘detoxed’. If people seek out further reasons to take the drug, they may be developing an addiction. People that tend towards addiction usually abuse the drug with the intention of lessening their anxiety or getting high (escaping their feelings or reality). The pleasure of getting high and the fear of withdrawal instruct the brain to compulsively seek out the drug, at any cost, and to crave its continued use despite the negative consequences.

Some commonly abused prescription drugs

  • Barbiturates or sedatives: High doses can cause trouble breathing, especially if taken with alcohol.
  • Benzodiazepines: Another type of sedative that helps with anxiety, panic attacks and sleep problems.
  • Sleep medicines: Help people who suffer from insomnia but, when abused, addicts start to believe they need them to sleep.
  • Codeine and morphine: Painkillers, specifically opioids, are some of the most commonly abused OTC medicines. In small doses these drugs dull pain, but in large doses they can cause a euphoric high and some dangerous side effects like drowsiness, constipation and breathing problems.

These readily available OTC drugs are especially popular with teenagers:

  • Diet pills: Teenagers are prone to “going on diets” and will often try anything which claims to make them thinner or prettier. The abuse of diet pills often starts with teenagers just taking “a couple” to lose weight. In large doses, these pills can create a mild buzz and false “energy”, a feeling that can be addictive in itself. Continued misuse of diet pills can signal a serious eating disorder or lead to many physical side effects.
  • Amphetamines: Often used to help people with ADHD, some people (often teenagers) use amphetamines to increase energy and alertness, or to keep their weight down. High doses can cause a rise in body temperature, irregular heartbeat and sometimes cardiac arrest.
  • Dextromethorphan (DXM): Is a common ingredient in over-the-counter cold and cough medicines, which in large doses can cause a high, hallucinations, vomiting, rapid heart rate, and brain damage.
  • Pseudoephedrine: A decongestant in many non-prescription cold medicines that helps to clear up stuffy noses; it is also an ingredient in the illegal methamphetamine or “meth”.

What is the scope of prescription drug misuse?

Misuse of prescription opioids, CNS depressants, and stimulants is a serious public health problem in the United States. Although most people take prescription medications responsibly, in 2017, an estimated 18 million people (more than 6 percent of those aged 12 and older) have misused such medications at least once in the past year. According to results from the 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an estimated 2 million Americans misused prescription pain relievers for the first time within the past year, which averages to approximately 5,480 initiates per day. Additionally, more than one million misused prescription stimulants, 1.5 million misused tranquilizers, and 271,000 misused sedatives for the first time.

The reasons for the high prevalence of prescription drug misuse vary by age, gender, and other factors, but likely include ease of access. The number of prescriptions for some of these medications has increased dramatically since the early 1990s. Moreover, misinformation about the addictive properties of prescription opioids and the perception that prescription drugs are less harmful than illicit drugs are other possible contributors to the problem. Although misuse of prescription drugs affects many Americans, certain populations such as youth and older adults may be at particular risk.

SOURCES

http://www.toughlove.org.za/articles/86-prescription-drugs-when-drug-abuse-is-lega

https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/misuse-prescription-drugs/what-scope-prescription-drug-misuse

Published as a series given to people in 12 step addiction recovery treatment. The purpose of these talks was to teach and motivate individuals to search for their own spiritual solution to their addiction.

www.crossroadsrecovery.co.za

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